OOP - Object Oriented Programming | Concepts and Benefits [2023]

Object Oriented Programming OOP
Object Oriented Programming OOP


OOP - Object Oriented Programming is a way of writing code or pattern of computer programming. It is a method or pattern of writing code, by following this pattern any language can achieve certain Concepts of the paradigm in the code.

As the name suggests, the basic entity or building block of this programming paradigm is objects. Object Oriented Programming provides a number of benefits to developers, which will be discussed in the last section of this article.

This piece of writing would first introduce the core concepts of the paradigm i.e. Objects and classes and other paradigm concepts. Further, the list of languages that support the programming pattern and lastly, the benefits of the programming paradigm will be discussed.

Core Concepts of OOP:

1). Class:

Class is the fundamental unit of Object Oriented Programming. It is a user-defined data type. It consists of data and functions, which can be used by creating its instances. Class is a collection of different data types and methods. Objects are used to make multiple and unique copies of the class with the same properties. Class is commonly known as the blueprint of its objects.

Consider a real-life example, a vehicle is a class. This class of car has an engine, wheels, and body (variables). The class car has a number of methods, i.e. accelerating the vehicle’s speed and braking, etc.

2). Object:

Objects in this paradigm are corresponding to real-world entities or objects. Objects are instances of a class. Objects can access all the variables, properties, and methods of the class. It can use all the data or methods of the class except methods and data types with private modifiers.

Consider a real-life example, Mercedes Maybach S600 is the object of a class car. As it has or can have all the variables or methods of class car. It has a big engine, four wheels, and a beautiful body.

3). Inheritance:

The First fundamental concept of object-oriented programming is Inheritance, almost all OOP languages support it. As the name suggests, the inheritance of a class is that the child class has the features of any other (super or parent) class.

The child class inherits the variables, methods, and set of operations of the parent class. The object of the child class can access the variables, and functions parent class.

Types of Inheritance:

1). Single Inheritance.

2). Multiple Inheritance.

3). Multilevel Inheritance.

4). Hierarchical Inheritance.

5). Hybrid Inheritance.

Also Read: Front-End Development

4). Encapsulation:

The second core concept of object-oriented programming, encapsulation, as the name suggests is the concept of binding or covering the important data and showing only a small, required part of the data. It restricts direct access to the ocean of data and code or business logic.

This concept is achieved by using access modifiers i.e. Public, Private, Protected, and Default. Private variables or methods cannot be accessed from anywhere outside the class body. Therefore the important variable or business logic containing methods are given the ‘private’ access modifier.

Access Modifiers:

1). Public:

Public Access Modifier, as the name suggests, can be accessed anywhere within and outside the class, i.e. the same class, in objects of the class, and even by any other public class.

2). Private:

Private variables and methods can be accessed only within the body of the class. Even the object of the class cannot access private methods and variables.

3). Protected:

Protected variables and methods can be accessed within and outside the class. The condition is that public classes can access the protected methods and variables only by inheriting.

5). Abstraction:

This third fundamental concept of object-oriented programming is related to data abstraction or data hiding. By using abstract classes, data abstraction can be achieved. Data Abstraction is used to show only relevant data and hide unnecessary data.

6). Polymorphism:

Polymorphism is the fourth core concept of object-oriented programming. As the name suggests, multiple forms of one thing. Polymorphism can be classified into two main categories i.e. the first, Compile Time Polymorphism; the second, Run Time Polymorphism.

Types of Polymorphism:

Compile Time Polymorphism:

1). Function Overloading.

2). Operator Overloading.

Run Time Polymorphism:

1). Function Overriding.

Also, Read Artificial Intelligence.

Languages that Support OOP:

Almost all advanced programming languages support the paradigm of the paradigm. These languages include:

1). Java:

Except for the primitive data types in Java, It is 100% OOP language.

2). Python

Python supports it and other paradigms too.

3). PHP

PHP supports it and other paradigms too including procedural patterns.

4). JavaScript – ECMAScript-6

JavaScript supports the paradigm and other paradigms too including procedural and functional patterns.

5). C++ 

It supports the paradigm and other paradigms too including functional patterns.

Also, Read Back End Development.

Benefits of OOP:

1). Reusability:

Objects are the instances of classes; all the features are derived from the class. This concept supports the slogan “Don’t Repeat Yourself”. Hence, the paradigm supports the concept of reusability extensively.

2). Productivity:

Easy inheriting premade classes and implementation of libraries and packages including a set of classes that make easy for programmers to speedily make products (software projects).

3). Scalability:

The paradigm concepts help to scale up the size programs i.e. Mobile or Web Applications. One may refer to the frameworks of different languages for scalable applications i.e. Django, Laravel, etc based on the concepts of the paradigm.

4). Security:

Concepts like data abstraction, encapsulation, and access modifiers make the paradigm more secure and clean from flaws. All advanced secure programming languages use OOP to achieve practice security.

5). Flexibility:

Polymorphism brings flexibility to programs by creating multiple forms of the same method (functions).

For instance, create one method ‘calculate’ which accepts two integers (numbers) and an operation sign; and returns a number, output. Instead of creating four separate methods for the four operations i.e. Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, and Division. Polymorphism helps to make the four forms of the method ‘calculate’ based on the operation sign.

Also Read: Full Stack


To conclude, it would be true to say that the paradigm of OOP - Object Oriented Programming is the advanced, robust, and beneficial pattern of writing code. Many languages support the paradigm and many others too. 

But for scale-able and enterprise-level projects, the paradigm is always preferred over the other ones.

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